There has been a lot of work on this (but more needs to be done) the big issues right now slowing down efficiency are dwell times, fare systems and the lack of use of middle doors, which could really bring down costs a huge amount but I don't ever see that happening. They won't be increasing hours - the problem with the pay is not so much core pay, more the way that a large number of drivers are contracted for a standard working week, which is not actually connected to the work that is actually done by the staff, which causes the company considerable expense since the excess is paid at overtime rates every week for the whole year for a large number of employees. You could say that an easy way around that is to offer drivers higher basic pay for the extra hours, but the unions are never going to allow that because of the fact it would reduce their members earning potential despite the fact it would give them a little bit more security, premiums and overtime and allowances make up a significant proportion of a lot of staffs wages. This is why BE have offered staff a pay-rise of several percent over the next few years in exchange for cuts to premiums, allowances and overtime. The sheer amount of money they are spending on these things is massive, and is the same reason why the unions are making such a fuss, Even though there core pay is not being effected.