More often that it should, but less often than many people think. It’s rare to have anything stopped for more than 10 minutes. 1) yes 2) variable 3) all of the core stations 4) both, and off peak 5) both You can only see this at times when the train is late, as they are normally booked 1 minute dwell. ‘Recovery conditons’ doesn’t imply crush loading though, it can be as simple as one to two trains out of sequence, requiring trains to be pumped through at 120-150sec headways to catch up. For example two trains arriving 10 minutes late right behind each other will take 8 successive 120sec headways to recover at 24 tph. I have often seen trains through on 120second headways, but this requires sharp dispatch and sharp driving; the latter of which will be universal when ATO is in use. The trains were specifically designed to deal with several hundred boarders and alighters in a 45sec wheels stop / Wheels start, experiments were conducted nearly a decade ago to prove it.